The First International Conference on the Pre-Islamic Arabian Lunisolar Calendars
Historians agree that around 17 AH (638 CE) Caliph ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb decreed the Hijri calendar as a strictly lunar calendar. However, the character of the calendar, i.e., the “Arabian Calendar” that was followed by the Prophet Muhammad all his life, remains a matter of debate. By far, the majority opinion in Islamic circles is that the Arabian Calendar was also strictly lunar. However, a growing number of scholars argue that the Arabian Calendar, which remained in vogue (at least in Hijaz) up to the Farewell Pilgrimage of 10 AH (632 CE), was an intercalated lunisolar calendar. Even when scholars agree that it was lunisolar, they still cannot arrive at a consensus about its method of intercalation (Kabs). To discuss this vitally important topic, this conference aims to bring together scholars of all diverse opinions related to the pre-Islamic Arabian Calendar. Topics related to the Arabian Calendar may include:
- The structure of the Arabian Calendar which remained in use from pre-Islamic times to the end of year 10 AH,
- The method of its intercalation,
- Its relationship to the pre-Islamic Hajj rituals,
- Its history and the historical context of its dominance,
- Related calendars from neighboring civilizations,
- Its evolution into the Hijri Calendar,
- Reconstruction of the Islamic chronology in the first decade of Islam.
- The astral timekeeping systems represented by the ʾAnwāʾ and its relationship to lunisolar calendars.
The conference will consist of two main components: the submission of research papers on topics relevant to the conference, and the presentation of accepted papers to the general public. All presentations will be conducted using the virtual space (Zoom platform). Submitted papers will undergo a thorough review process by members of the Scientific Committee and other field experts. The Jordanian Astronomical Society aims to publish all accepted articles in a book.
The deadline for paper submission is set for Thursday, November 30, 2023.
- The submitted article must be specifically prepared for the conference,
- The entire article, including citations and comments, must be submitted to the review committee, Abstracts will not be accepted,
- The article should not exceed 9000 words in length.
- Lectures will be delivered virtually using platforms such as Zoom, Facebook, and YouTube.
- Keynote speakers will have a maximum duration of 30 minutes, while participating lecturers will be limited to 20 minutes.
- Each lecture will be followed by a 10-minute session of Q&A.
- All submissions will undergo a double-blind review process by a minimum of two experts in the relevant topics.
- Authors will receive recommendations from the reviewers, which they should consider and act upon.
Submissions are accepted in Arabic and English. The conference will provide interpretation in both languages.
Method of Submission:
Submitted articles should be sent to the conference’s email address:
The submitted article must include a brief cover letter, authors names, academic degrees or ranks, and affiliation. Articles should be in Microsoft Word format.
Papers can be submitted in any format, but they must meet the following requirements:
- The article must be in MS Word format and not exceed 9000 words,
- Times New Roman font should be used for both Arabic and English text,
- The text should be in size 12 points, with 1.5 lines spacing,
- Titles should be in 14 points, and subtitles should be in 13 points,
- Pages should be single-column and carefully proofread for grammar and spelling,
- Page numbers should be placed in the footer,
- References should follow the APA citation standard,
- Comments should be re-numbered sequentially for each page,
- Tables and figures should be numbered sequentially throughout the document, with captions placed below the table or figure.
- June 10, 2023: Publication of the “call for papers,”
- November 30, 2023: Deadline for paper submissions,
- February 1, 2024: Completion of the review process for all submissions,
- March 8, 2024: Conference begins,
- March 9, 2024: Conference concludes.
Members of Scientific Committee:
Head of the Scientific Committee: Muhammad Maraqten: Palestinian/German professor, researcher, archaeologist, and historian specializing in the languages and civilizations of the ancient East, the University of Marburg and Mainz, the German Institute for Oriental Research (Beirut), the University of Vienna, the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and Qatar University
Avilés, Belmonte, Juan Antonio
Robin, Christian Julien
Alphabetical order by last Name:
Abad, Hisham (Palestine-USA): Professor of Physics at Purdue University, Hammond, Indiana, USA, interested in lunar-solar calendars, especially the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar. Author of the book Towards an Islamic Lunisolar Calendar.
Abattouy, Mohamed (Morocco): Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Mohammed V University in Rabat, Senior Researcher at the foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization in Manchester, won the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Award for Translation at its eighth session (2015), and the Mohammed V University in Rabat awarded him in January 2016 the award for best book In social sciences, coordinator of the Arabic Encyclopedia Arabica project, the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies
Al-Dallal, Shawqi (Bahrain), Professor of Physics at Bahraini Universities, Al-Ahlia University, Vice President of the Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vice President of the Arab Physical Society
Al-Muhammad, Anwar (Sadi Arabia), Professor of Astrophysics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, President of the Astronomical Society in Qatif
Al-Hasanat, Ahmed (Jordan), Secretary General IFTAA Department of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Deputy Grand Mufti of Jordan, member of the Jordanian IFTAA, Islamic research and studies Council, Member of the Jordanian Crescents committee, PhD in Islamic Sharia.
Alhalfi, Shakeeb (Iraq), Professor of Philosophy of Arabic and Art, Kufa Studies Center, University of Kufa, Iraq, specialist on the calendars & Nasi’ studies
Allawi, Ziad (Iraq), Professor of Computer Engineering at the University of Baghdad, Iraq
Ateyya, Ahmed (Egypt), Expert in al-ʾAnwāʿ, Ph.D. in Arabic literature from Cairo University.
Belmonte Avilés, Juan Antonio (Spain), has a degree in Physics from the University of Barcelona (1985) and a PhD in Astrophysics from the University of La Laguna (1989), where he also studied Egyptian hieroglyphic language. He is a Research Professor at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), where he investigates exoplanetology and Archaeoastronomy. He has written or edited some twenty books and written more than two hundred articles on these subjects in both scientific and popular science journals. He is associated with the Astrophysics Department of the University of La Laguna, where he has taught Astrobiology, History of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy and has supervised several doctoral theses.
Eid, Yahya Ismail (Jordan), specialist in Islamic Studies (Sharia) , a member of the Association of Jordan Scholars, the International Association of Jurists of the Nation, the Jordanian Astronomical Society.
EL-Qady, Gad M. (Egypt), President of the National Research Institute of Astronomy & Geophysics NRIAG, President of Egypt National Committee of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), PHD in applied Geophysics, Professor of applied Geophysics,
Ghasib, Hisham (Jordan), Professor of Theoretical Physics in Jordan, Founding Director of Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PHD in theoretical Physics, Co-Founder of the Jordanian Astronomical Society and the Jordanian Philosophical Society
Gürsey, Yusuf (Türkiye), Professor of physics from Türkiye. Currently living in the United States specialist in the calendars in the pre-Islamic period.
Khater, Wafa (Palestine), Professor of physics at the Birzeit University, and currently Dean of the College of Science at the Birzeit University
Lourié, Basil (Russia), Professor of the history of philosophy, at the Institute for Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, interested in the Calendric Structures in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity.
Mansour, Muhammad Khaled (Jordan), Professor of Usool al-Fiqh “fundamentals of Islamic jurisprudence” at the University of Jordan and Kuwait University, Ex-Head of the Department of “Usool al-Fiqh” at the Faculty of Sharia, the University of Jordan, Ex-Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Sharia at the University of Jordan for postgraduate studies.
Meziane, Karim (Algeria-Canada), Senior Research Scientist at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, Published research papers on the Islamic Hijri Calendar.
Qadi, Adnan (Saudi Arabia), researcher and specialist in the Islamic calendars, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Razza, Shaykh Qazi Hassan (UK), Mufti of Almarkaz ul Islami, Bradford.
Robin, Christian Julien (France), Professor of Pre-Islamic Arabia and Ethiopia, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA
Sabat, Hanna (Jordan), Vice-president of the Jordanian Astronomical Society, Director of Scientific Affairs and Training at the Regional Center for Space Science and Technology Education for Western Asia, PHD Astrophysics, Former Dean of the Institute of Astronomy and Space Science at Al al-Bayt University; Center of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Research interests: high-energy astrophysics, stellar binary systems, X-ray binaries; orbital dynamics, Sun-Earth-Moon dynamics, Dark Matter and Modified Dynamics.
Sakaji, Ammar (Jordan), President of the Jordanian Astronomical Society JAS, Head of the Scientific Affairs at the Regional Center for Space Science and Technology Education for Western Asia, Theoretical & Astronomical Physicist, Center of Theoretical Physics & Astrophysics, Honorary Professor of Physics, Editor of the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, former Deputy General Director of the Scientific Affairs at the Regional Center for Space Science and Technology Education for Western Asia,
Sakhl, Asaad (Jordan), Professor of Physics at Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordanian Astronomical Society, Editor of the Pleiades Magazine (JAS Monthly Bulletin)
Segura, Wenceslao (Spain), physicist, and specialist in Hemerology, researcher of mathematics and astronomy of calendars.
Shaddad, Muawiya (Sudan), Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Khartoum, Sudan, President of the Sudanese Society for Astronomy and Space Sciences
Varisco, Daniel (USA), Professor Varisco is an anthropologist and historian, who conducted ethnographic and ecological research in the Yemen Arab Republic in 1978-79 and returned numerous times in the 1980s and 1990s as both a consultant in development and a historian. He is currently working at the Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton University. He has a special interest in Rasulid Yemen (13th-15th centuries CE) and environmental issues in Yemen, especially agriculture, irrigation, and water use.
Ammar Sakaji (Head of the Committee), Hisham Abad, Amr Almusa, Basma Diab, Yusuf Gürsy.